Table 10.8 A Summary of the Major Minerals
|Micronutrient||Sources||Recommended Intakes for adults||Major functions||Deficiency diseases and symptoms||Groups at risk for deficiency||Toxicity||UL|
|Calcium||Yogurt, cheese, sardines, milk, orange juice, turnip||1,000 mg/day||Component of mineralized bone, provides structure and microarchitecture||Increased risk of osteoporosis||Postmenopausal women, those who are actoseintolerant, or vegan||Kidney stones||2,500 mg|
|Phosphorus||Salmon, yogurt, turkey, chicken, beef, lentils||700 mg/day||Structural component of bones, cell membrane, DNA and RNA, and ATP||Bone loss, weak bones||Older adults, alcoholics||None||3,000 mg|
|Magnesium||Whole grains and legumes, almonds, cashews, hazelnuts, beets, collards, and kelp||420 mg/day||Component of mineralized bone, ATP synthesis and utilization, carbohydrate, lipid,protein, RNA, and DNA synthesis||Tremor, muscle spasms, loss of appetite, nausea||Alcoholics, individuals with kidney and gastrointestinal disease||Nausea, vomiting, low blood pressure||350 mg/day|
|Sulfur||Protein foods||None specified||Structure of some vitamins and amino acids, acid-base balance||None when protein needs are met||None||None||ND|
|Sodium||Processed foods, table salt, pork, chicken||< 2,300 mg/day; ideally 1,500 mg/day||Major positive extracellular ion, nerve transmission, muscle contraction, fluid balance||Muscle cramps||People consuming too much water, excessive sweating, those with vomiting or diarrhea||High blood pressure||2,300 mg/day|
|Potassium||Fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, milk||4700 mg/day||Major positive intracellular ion, nerve transmission, muscle contraction, fluid balance||Irregular heartbeat, muscle cramps||People consuming diets high in processed meats, those with vomiting or diarrhea||Abnormal heartbeat||ND|
|Chloride||Table salt, processed foods||<3600 mg/day; ideally 2300 mg/day||Major negative extracellular ion, fluid balance||Unlikely||none||None||3,600 mg/day|
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