Cells are about 75 percent and blood plasma is about 95 percent water. Why then, does the water not flow from blood plasma to cells? The force of water also known as hydrostatic pressure maintains the volumes of water between fluid compartments against the force of all dissolved substances. The concentration is the amount of particles in a set volume of water. (Recall that individual can differ in concentration between the intracellular and extracellular fluids, but the total concentration of all dissolved substances is equal.)
The force driving the water movement through the selectively permeable membrane is the higher solute concentration on the one side. Solutes at different concentrations on either side of a selectively permeable membrane exert a force, called . The higher concentration of solutes on one side compared to the other of the U-tube exerts osmotic pressure, pulling the water to a higher volume on the side of the U-tube containing more dissolved particles. When the osmotic pressure is equal to the pressure of the water on the selectively permeable membrane, net water movement stops (though it still diffuses back and forth at an equal rate).
One equation exemplifying equal concentrations but different volumes is the following
5 grams of glucose in 1 liter = 10 grams of glucose in 2 liters (5g/L = 5g/L)
The differences in concentrations of particular substances provide concentration gradients that cells can use to perform work. A is a form of , like water above a dam. When water falls through a dam the potential energy is changed to moving energy (kinetic), that in turn is captured by turbines. Similarly, when an electrolyte at higher concentration in the is transported into a cell, the potential energy is harnessed and used to perform work.
Cells are constantly transporting nutrients in and wastes out. How is the concentration of solutes maintained if they are in a state of flux? This is where come into play. The cell (or more specifically the numerous sodium-potassium pumps in its membrane) continuously pumps sodium ions out to establish a . The transport protein, called the glucose symporter, uses the sodium gradient to power glucose movement into the cell. Sodium and glucose both move into the cell. Water passively follows the sodium. To restore balance, the sodium-potassium pump transfers sodium back to the extracellular fluid and water follows. Every cycle of the sodium-potassium pump involves the movement of three sodium ions out of a cell, in exchange for two potassium ions into a cell. To maintain charge neutrality on the outside of cells every sodium cation is followed by a chloride anion. Every cycle of the pump costs one molecule of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). The constant work of the sodium-potassium pump maintains the solute equilibrium and consequently, water distribution between intracellular and extracellular fluids.
The unequal movement of the positively charged sodium and potassium ions makes more negatively charged than the extracellular fluid. This charge gradient is another source of energy that a cell uses to perform work. You will soon learn that this charge gradient and the sodium-potassium pump are also essential for nerve conduction and muscle contraction. The many functions of the sodium-potassium pump in the body account for approximately a quarter of total resting energy expenditure.
Figure 3.8 The Sodium-Potassium Pump
Technology Note: The second edition of the Human Nutrition Open Educational Resource (OER) textbook features interactive learning activities. These activities are available in the web-based textbook and not available in the downloadable versions (EPUB, Digital PDF, Print_PDF, or Open Document).
Learning activities may be used across various mobile devices, however, for the best user experience it is strongly recommended that users complete these activities using a desktop or laptop computer and in Google Chrome.
The universal chemical solvent in which most of the processes of life occur.
The substances that are dissolved in a solution.
The amount of pressure needed to prevent the movement of water across a membrane.
The process of particles moving through a solution from an area of higher number of solute to an area of lower number of solute.
The energy that systems contain because of the position of their parts.
Fluid outside the cell that includes the interstitial fluid between cells and the intravascular fluid in blood vessels.
Electrically charged ions dissolved in a solution. Commonly refers to sodium, potassium, and chloride.
The process where electrolytes at a higher concentration in the extracellular fluid are transported into the cell to lower concentrations.
Fluid within the cells that are usually high in potassium and phosphate.