Table 11.12 Summary of the Trace Minerals
|Micronutrient||Sources||Recommended Intakes for adults||Major Functions||Deficiency diseases and symptoms||Groups at risk for deficiency||Toxicity||UL|
|Iron||Red meat, egg yolks, dark leafy vegetables, dried fruit, iron-fortified foods||8-18 mg/day||Assists in energy production, DNA synthesis required for red blood cell function||Anemia: fatigue, paleness, faster heart rate||Infants and preschool children, adolescents, women, pregnant women, athletes, vegetarians||Liver damage, increased risk of diabetes and cancer||45 mg/day|
|Copper||Nuts, seeds, whole grains, seafood||900 mcg/day||Assists in energy production, iron metabolism||Anemia: fatigue, paleness, faster heart rate||Those who consume excessive zinc supplements||Vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, liver damage||10 mg/day|
|Zinc||Oysters, wheat germ, pumpkin seeds, squash,, beans, sesame seeds, tahini, beef, lamb||8-11 mg/day||Assists in energy production, protein, RNA and DNA synthesis; required for hemoglobinsynthesis||Growth retardation in children, hair loss, diarrhea, skin sores, loss of appetite, weight loss||Vegetarians, older adults||Depressed immune function||40 mg/day|
|Selenium||Meat, seafood, eggs, nuts||55 mcg/day||Essential for thyroid hormone activity||Fatigue, muscle pain, weakness, Keshan disease||Populations where the soil is low in selenium||Nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, fatigue||400 mcg/day|
|Iodine||Iodized salt, seaweed, dairy products||150 mcg/day||Making thyroid hormone, metabolism, growth and development||Goiter, cretinism, other signs and symptoms include fatigue, depression, weight gain, itchy skin, low heart-rate||Populations where the soil is low in iodine, and iodized salt is not used||Enlarged thyroid||1110 mcg/day|
|Chromium||Meats, nuts and whole grain||25-35 mcg/day||Assists insulin in carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism||abnormal glucose metabolism||Malnourished children||None||ND|
|Fluoride||Fluoridated water, foods prepared in fluoridated water, seafood||3-4 mg/day||Component of mineralized bone, provides structure and microarchitecture, stimulates new bone growth||Increased risk of dental caries||Populations with non fluoridated water||Fluorosismottled teeth, kidneydamage||10 mg/day|
|Manganese||Legumes, nuts, leafy green vegetables||1.8-2.3 mg/day||Glucose synthesis, amino-acid catabolism||Impaired growth, skeletal abnormalities, abnormal glucose metabolism||None||Nerve damage||11 mg/day|
|Molybdenum||Milk, grains, legumes||45 mcg/day||Cofactor for a number of enzymes||Unknown||None||Arthritis, joint inflammation||2 mg/day|
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