Li‘ili‘i ka ‘ōhiki, loloa ka lua

Small is the crab, large is the hole

Seaweed salad topped with avocado on a white plate
Wakame Salad Seaweed Food Cooking by / CCO

Learning Objectives

By the end of this chapter you will be able to:

  • Describe the functional role, intake recommendations and sources of trace minerals

Trace are classified as minerals required in the diet each day in smaller amounts, specifically 100 milligrams or less.  These include copper, zinc, selenium, iodine, chromium, fluoride, , , and others.  Although trace minerals are needed in smaller amounts it is important to remember that a deficiency in a trace mineral can be just as detrimental to your health as a major mineral deficiency. Iodine deficiency is a major concern in countries around the world such as Fiji.  In the 1990’s, almost 50% of the population had signs of iodine deficiency also known as . To combat this national issue, the government of Fiji banned non- and allowed only fortified iodized salt into the country in hopes of increasing the consumption of iodine in people’s diets.  With this law, and health promotion efforts encouraging the consumption of seafood, great progress has been made in decreasing the prevalence of iodine deficiency in Fiji.[1]


List of major and trace minerals
Figure 11.1 The Trace Minerals
Image by Allison Calabrese / CC BY 4.0

Learning Activities

Technology Note: The second edition of the Human Nutrition Open Educational Resource (OER) textbook features interactive learning activities.  These activities are available in the web-based textbook and not available in the downloadable versions (EPUB, Digital PDF, Print_PDF, or Open Document).

Learning activities may be used across various mobile devices, however, for the best user experience it is strongly recommended that users complete these activities using a desktop or laptop computer.



  1. Micronutrient Deficiencies. (2015).  Ministry of Health and Medical Services, Shaping Fiji’s Health.  Accessed November 12, 2017.


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