also acts as a cofactor that is required for the of sulfur-containing amino acids, nitrogen-containing compounds found in DNA and RNA, and various other functions. Deficiency of molybdenum is not seen in healthy people, however, a rare metabolic effect called molybdenum cofactor deficiency is the result of an insufficient amount of molybdoenzymes in the body. Due to rapid excretion rates in the urine of the mineral, molybdenum toxicity is low in humans.


Dietary Reference Intakes of Molybdenum:

The recommended intake for molybdenum is 45 mcg per day for both adult males and females.

Table 11.13 Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) Values for Molybdenum (μg/day)
Age group RDA (μg/day) UL (μg/day)
Infants (0-6 months)
Infants (6-12 months)
Children (1-3 years) 17 300
Children (4-8 years) 22 600
Children (9-13 years) 34 1,100
Adolescents (14-18 years) 43 1,700
Adults (19-50 years) 45 2,000
Adults (51-70 years) 45 2,000
Adults (>71 years) 45 2,000

Source: The National Academies Press (2006). Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. The National Academies of Sciences Engineering Medicine. 356.

Dietary Sources of Molybdenum:

The food sources of molybdenum varies depending on the content in the soil in the specific region. Legumes, grain products, and nuts are rich sources of dietary molybdenum. Animal products, fruits, and most vegetables are low in molybdenum.[1]

Learning Activities

Technology Note: The second edition of the Human Nutrition Open Educational Resource (OER) textbook features interactive learning activities.  These activities are available in the web-based textbook and not available in the downloadable versions (EPUB, Digital PDF, Print_PDF, or Open Document).

Learning activities may be used across various mobile devices, however, for the best user experience it is strongly recommended that users complete these activities using a desktop or laptop computer.



  1. Gropper, S. A. S., Smith, J. L., & Carr, T. P. (2018). Advanced nutrition and human metabolism. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.


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