is a cofactor for that are required for carbohydrate and cholesterol , bone formation, and the synthesis of urea. Those who suffer from liver failure are at greater risk for manganese toxicity because the mineral’s homeostasis is maintained largely by the liver with excretion of excess manganese occurring via bile. Manganese deficiency is uncommon. If a deficiency occurs from elimination from the diet, signs and symptoms include but are not limited to nausea, vomiting, dermatitis, decreased growth of hair and nails, and poor bone formation and skeletal defects.[1]


Dietary Reference Intake of Manganese

The recommended intake for manganese is 2.3 mg per day for adult males and 1.8 mg per day for adult females. The Tolerable Upper Intake Level for adults is 11 mg/day.

Table 11.12 Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) Values for Chromium (mg/day)
Age group AI (mg/day) UL (mg/day)
Infants (0-6 months) 0.003
Infants (6-12 months) 0.6
Children (1-3 years) 1.2 2
Children (4-8 years) 1.5 3
Children (9-13 years) 1.9 6
Adolescents (14-18 years) 2.2 (males), 1.6 (females) 9
Adults (>18 years) 2.3 (males), 1.8 (females) 11

Source: The National Academies Press (2006). Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. The National Academies of Sciences Engineering Medicine. 350.

Dietary Sources of Manganese:

The best food sources for manganese are whole grains, nuts, legumes, and green vegetables.

Learning Activities

Technology Note: The second edition of the Human Nutrition Open Educational Resource (OER) textbook features interactive learning activities.  These activities are available in the web-based textbook and not available in the downloadable versions (EPUB, Digital PDF, Print_PDF, or Open Document).

Learning activities may be used across various mobile devices, however, for the best user experience it is strongly recommended that users complete these activities using a desktop or laptop computer.



  1. Gropper, S. A. S., Smith, J. L., & Carr, T. P. (2018). Advanced nutrition and human metabolism. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.


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