Young Adulthood

University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa Food Science and Human Nutrition Program and Human Nutrition Program

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Young adulthood is the period from ages nineteen to thirty years. It is a stable time compared to childhood and adolescence. Physical growth has been completed and all of the organs and body systems are fully developed. Typically, a young adult who is active has reached his or her physical peak and is in prime health. For example, vital capacity, or the maximum amount of air that the lungs can inhale and exhale, is at its peak between the ages of twenty and forty.[1] During this life stage, it important to continue to practice good nutrition. Healthy eating habits promote metabolic functioning, assist repair and regeneration, and prevent the development of chronic conditions. In addition, the goals of a young adult, such as beginning a career or seeking out romantic relationships, can be supported with good habits. Proper nutrition and adequate physical activity at this stage not only promote wellness in the present, but also provide a solid foundation for the future.

With the onset of adulthood, good nutrition can help young adults enjoy an active lifestyle. The body of an adult does not need to devote its energy and resources to support the rapid growth and development that characterizes youth. However, the choices made during those formative years can have a lasting impact. Eating habits and preferences developed during childhood and adolescence influence health and fitness into adulthood. Some adults have gotten a healthy start and have established a sound diet and regular activity program, which helps them remain in good condition from young adulthood into the later years. Others carry childhood obesity into adulthood, which adversely affects their health. However, it is not too late to change course and develop healthier habits and lifestyle choices. Therefore, adults must monitor their dietary decisions and make sure their caloric intake provides the energy that they require, without going into excess.

Energy and Macronutrients

Young men typically have higher nutrient needs than young women. For ages nineteen to thirty, the energy requirements for women are 1,800 to 2,400 calories, and 2,400 to 3,000 calories for men, depending on activity level. These estimates do not include women who are pregnant or breastfeeding, who require a higher energy intake. For carbohydrates, the is 45 to 65 percent of daily calories. All adults, young and old, should eat fewer energy-dense carbohydrates, especially refined, sugar-dense sources, particularly for those who lead a more sedentary lifestyle. The AMDR for protein is 10 to 35 percent of total daily calories, and should include a variety of lean meat and poultry, eggs, beans, peas, nuts, and seeds. The guidelines also recommend that adults eat two 4-ounce servings (or one 8-ounce serving) of seafood per week.

It is also important to replace proteins that are high in trans fats and saturated fat with ones that are lower in solid fats and calories. All adults should limit total fat to 20 to 35 percent of their daily calories and keep saturated fatty acids to less than 10 percent of total calories by replacing them with monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Avoid trans fats by limiting foods that contain synthetic sources, such as partially hydrogenated oils. The AMDR for fiber is 22 to 28 grams per day for women and 28 to 34 grams per day for men. may help improve cholesterol and blood sugar levels, while can help prevent constipation.


Micronutrient needs in adults differ slightly according to sex. Young men and women who are very athletic and perspire a great deal also require extra sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Males require more of vitamins C and K, along with thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin. Females require extra iron due to menstruation. Therefore, it can be beneficial for some young adults to follow a daily multivitamin regimen to help meet nutrient needs. But as always, it is important to remember “food first, supplements second.” Table 15.1 “Micronutrient Levels during Adulthood” shows the micronutrient recommendations for adult men and women.

Table 15.1 Micronutrient Levels during Adulthood

Nutrient Adult Males Adult Females
Vitamin A (mcg) 900.0 700.0
Vitamin B6 (mg) 1.3 1.3
Vitamin B12  (mcg) 2.4 2.4
Vitamin C (mg) 90.0 75.0
Vitamin D (mcg) 5.0 5.0
Vitamin E (mg) 15.0 15.0
Vitamin K(mcg) 120.0 90.0
Calcium (mg) 1,000.0 1,000.0
Folate (mcg) 400.0 400.0
Iron (mg) 8.0 18.0
Magnesium (mg)  400.0 310.0
Niacin (mg) 16.0 14.0
Phosphorus (mg) 700.0 700.0
Riboflavin (mg) 1.3 1.1
Selenium 55.0 55.0
Thiamin (mg) 1.2 1.1
 Zinc (mg) 11.0  8.0

Source: Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Accessed December 10, 2017.

Nutritional Concerns in Young Adulthood

There are a number of intake recommendations for young adults. According to the IOM, an adequate intake (AI) of fluids for men is 3.7 liters per day, from both food and liquids. The AI for women is 2.7 liters per day, from food and liquids.[2] It is best when fluid intake is from water, instead of sugary beverages, such as soda. Fresh fruits and vegetables, including watermelon and cucumbers, are excellent food sources of fluid. In addition, young adults should avoid consuming excessive amounts of sodium. The health consequences of high sodium intake include high blood pressure and its complications. Therefore, it is best to limit sodium to less than 2,300 milligrams per day.

Obesity during Adulthood

Obesity remains a major concern into young adulthood. For adults, a BMI above 25 is considered overweight, and a BMI of 30 or higher is obese. By that measurement, about two-thirds of all adults in the United States are overweight or obese, with 35.7 percent considered to be obese. [3] As during childhood and adolescence, physical inactivity and poor dietary choices are major contributors to obesity in adulthood. Solid fats, alcohol, and added sugars (SoFAAS) make up 35 percent of total calories for most people, leading to high levels of saturated fat and cholesterol and insufficient dietary fiber. Therefore, it is important to limit unrefined carbohydrates and processed foods.

Learning Activities

Technology Note: The second edition of the Human Nutrition Open Educational Resource (OER) textbook features interactive learning activities.  These activities are available in the web-based textbook and not available in the downloadable versions (EPUB, Digital PDF, Print_PDF, or Open Document).

Learning activities may be used across various mobile devices, however, for the best user experience it is strongly recommended that users complete these activities using a desktop or laptop computer and in Google Chrome.



  1. Polan EU, Taylor DR. (2003). Journey Across the Life Span: Human Development and Health Promotion. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis Company, 192–93.
  2. Institute of Medicine. 2005. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Accessed December 10, 2017.
  3. Prevalence of Obesity in the United States, 2009–2010. Centers for Disease Control, National Center for Health Statistics.NCHS Data Brief, No. 82. Published January 2012. Accessed December 8, 2017.


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